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Was ist Spritzgießen? Leitfaden von Experten mit 20-jähriger Erfahrung

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Automatische Produktionslinie für das Spritzgießverfahren

Injection molding stands as the cornerstone service offered by FirstMold, meticulously crafted through the insights and experiences of industry veterans boasting over 20 years of expertise. This article, a collective endeavor of seasoned masters, promises to exceed your expectations. It unfolds in two segments: the fundamentals and the advanced aspects of injection molding. Our primary audience includes novices and those aspiring to deepen their understanding in product design or newcomers within the industry. For those seeking injection molding services, case studies, or quotes, we encourage you to click on “Spritzgießservice” for comprehensive details.

Production of plastic products by injection molding process
Production of plastic products by injection molding process

Before diving into the intricacies of injection molding, let’s ponder a question: have you ever noticed the plastic products that pepper our daily lives? Items such as water bottles, computer mice, and the casings of household appliances are omnipresent. Indeed, plastic is arguably the most utilized material in our contemporary world. Today, we spotlight injection molding, a key player in the production of these plastic goods. While there are myriad methods for crafting plastic – including extrusion, blow molding, rotational molding, 3D printing, and thermoforming – injection molding reigns supreme in terms of popularity and application.

What is Injection Molding?

Explanation of Injection Molding

Injection molding harnesses the thermal properties of plastics, initiating the process by loading materials into the barrel from a hopper. A heating ring around the barrel melts the materials. Inside the barrel, a screw, driven by an external motor, rotates, pushing and compressing the material forward through its grooves.

The combined action of external heating and the screw’s shearing force gradually plasticizes, melts, and homogenizes the material. As the screw rotates, friction and shearing forces move the melted material toward the screw’s head. Meanwhile, the screw retracts under the material’s reactive force, creating a storage space at the screw head to complete the plasticization process.

Next, under the high-speed and high-pressure force of the injection cylinder’s piston, the melted material is injected into the mold cavity through a nozzle. After pressurization, cooling, and solidification in the cavity, the mold opens, and an ejection mechanism releases the finalized product as a qualified item.

For beginners, this might seem complex because there’s a lot of specialized vocabulary involved. A deeper understanding can be gained through the suggested video below. Remember, two essential elements for turning plastic raw materials into finished products are the injection mold and the injection molding machine.

This video shows a complete injection molding process

The brief history of the injection molding process

The earliest recorded injection molding machine dates back to 1872 in the United States, invented by J.W. Hyatt to address the plasticization and molding issues of a nitrocellulose and camphor mixture. This device, known as a “Packing Machine” (U.S. Patent No. 13329), marked a pivotal moment in manufacturing history.

Fast forward to 1921, the first machine that could be recognized as an injection molding machine was crafted by H. Buchholz. This manually operated, plunger-type machine bore similarities to the screw type compression presses of the time.

By 1926, the first series-produced injection molding machines were manufactured by Eckert and Ziegler. These machines featured manual mold clamping but introduced pneumatic injection—a significant innovation. Adopting a horizontal structure, the design principles of these early machines continue to influence modern plastic-making technology.

Injection molding process in the past
Injection molding process in the past

Injection Molding Basics

Spritzgussform

In our previous discussion, we introduced two fundamental concepts: the injection mold and the injection molding machine. Let’s talk about injection mold first.

Think of the injection mold as a critical tool in the injection molding process. During this process, plastic raw materials are heated to a molten state and injected into the injection mold. The desired plastic products are obtained by cooling and solidifying the materials inside the mold. While injection molds are integral to the molding process, it’s common for some companies to own injection molding machines without producing their molds. These companies often purchase molds externally to reduce the costs associated with acquiring and manufacturing mold-making machinery.

An injection mold typically comprises several components:

  • Form Basis: The primary part of the injection mold, usually made from materials with high hardness and wear resistance (such as steel, aluminum, copper, etc.), to ensure the mold’s lifespan.
  • Formhohlraum: The section of the injection mold where the plastic product is shaped, typically consisting of cavities with specific geometries and dimensions.
  • Runner System and Gates: Parts of the injection mold that guide the molten plastic into the molding cavity. They are made from suitable materials (like plastic or metal) to ensure smooth flow and prevent leakage.
  • Support and Fastening Parts: Components that support the mold and ensure its precision. They are crafted from appropriate materials to guarantee strength and stability.
  • Kühlsystem: A section within the injection mold designed to cool and solidify the molten plastic. It typically involves a suitable cooling medium (such as water or gas) to prevent damage to the molded parts due to overheating.

In essence, the injection mold is an indispensable tool in industrial production, significantly enhancing efficiency, reducing costs, and enabling the manufacture of plastic products in various shapes and sizes. All products that require mass production rely on molds, marking the start of industrial development and earning the mold the title of “Mother of Industry.”

This article won’t delve too deeply into injection molds, but you can click on “Spritzgussform” for more detailed information.

Spritzgießmaschinen

The injection molding machine plays a crucial role in the injection molding process, primarily heating the plastic and applying high pressure to the melted plastic, ensuring it is injected and fills the mold cavity. This machine is indispensable in the process.

There are various types of molding machines, classified based on structure, mold type, and other factors. Globally, there are many renowned manufacturers of plastic molding machines, such as KraussMaffei, Demag, and Husky. For more in-depth information, you can explore the “Spritzgießmaschine” page.

Given the differences in precision and brand, the cost of injection molding machines can vary significantly, with some differing by hundreds of thousands of dollars. Therefore, for those in need of plastic product production, considering the range of equipment a manufacturing facility possesses is a common way to gauge a company’s capability.

Types of injection molding

Indeed, “injection molding” encompasses a variety of processes. Importantly, when we commonly refer to “injection molding,” we’re typically talking about “plastic injection molding.” This process is the most frequent within the broader scope of injection molding, leading to “plastic injection molding” often being shortened simply to “injection molding.” You can also consider “plastic injection molding” as “standard injection molding”.

Let’s delve into the common specialized processes found within injection molding:

ProcessMaterial UsedCommon ApplicationsExplanation
Kunststoff-SpritzgießenThermoplasticsConsumer goods, Automotive partsMelts plastic granules and injects them into molds to form a wide variety of parts.
Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR)SiliconeMedical devices, Automotive componentsInjects liquid silicone into heated molds, curing into flexible and durable parts.
Thermoset Injection MoldingThermoset plasticsElectrical insulators, Automotive partsMolds thermoset materials, which irreversibly cure under heat, for heat-resistant parts.
Bi-Injection/Multi-ComponentMultiple materialsComplex parts with multiple propertiesSimultaneously or sequentially injects different materials into one mold for multi-material parts.
Digital Light Processing (DLP)Light-curable resinsPrototyping, Small batch productionUses light to cure the resin in layers, combined with injection molding for detailed parts.
Powder Injection Molding (PIM)Metals, CeramicsMedical, Electronics, Aerospace componentsMixes metal or ceramic powders with a binder, injects into molds, then sintering for strength.
Foam Injection MoldingThermoplastics with foaming agentsAutomotive, PackagingInjects plastic with a foaming agent to create lightweight parts with a foam core.
Reaction Injection Molding (RIM)Reacting polymersAutomotive parts (bumpers, fenders), EnclosuresInjects reactive chemicals into a mold where they expand and cure into large, lightweight parts.

FirstMold currently specializes in both plastic injection molding and silicone injection molding processes. Within plastic injection molding, we further refine our expertise in specific techniques such as overmolding, two-shot molding, and insert molding, among others. Each of these processes enables us to cater to diverse manufacturing needs and product specifications:

  • Umspritzen allows us to fuse two different materials, enhancing grip and aesthetics.
  • Two-shot molding efficiently creates complex products with multiple materials or colors in a single process.
  • Formteil einlegen integrates metal parts into plastic components, offering enhanced functionality and strength.

Workflow of the injection molding process

StageBeschreibung
1. Material SelectionSelect the right plastic material, depending on the specific properties and the particular finished part needs.
2. Mold DesignDesign the mold that will be used to shape the plastic material into the desired form. This includes specifying the part’s size, shape, and surface finish, as well as the placement and design of any features, such as channels or vents.
3. Mold FabricationBuild the mold with the help of high-tech milling techniques like CNC milling, EDM, or laser cutting. It is critical to have a mold as well as other components manufactured to high tolerances since this ensures the right-sized parts by being a product of high quality.
4. Injection Molding Machine SetupPut the mold on the injection molding machine and specify the machine on the proper settings with the material that is used and with the part that is produced. 
5. Injection Molding CycleCarry out the injection molding process, which involves heating the plastic until its melting point is achieved, and the plastic is introduced into the mold. The material is subsequently cooled and converted to a solid state.
6. Part FinishingDepending on the kind of part created, the aspect should get cleaned, polished, or otherwise completed to fulfill the particularisation and overall good looks. There may well be feedback activities such as drilling, painting, or labeling.
7. Quality ControlInspect the finished part to make sure it according to its quality, size, and performance standards. This could be conducted by visual intricate checks, dimensional measurements, or testing for material characteristics such as strength and hardness.
Firstmold Plastic molding process flow chart
Firstmold Plastic molding process flow chart


The injection molding process broadly encompasses several critical steps. Here, I’ll specifically highlight the six steps of an injection molding cycle. Note, the seventh step marks the repetition of the cycle, initiating a new cycle.

Clamping

The first goal in the injection molding process is to close the mold or “clamp” it down sufficiently to make the plastic material to be compressed into the mold cavity. A strong enough clamping force is necessary for the mold to endure the pressure developed during the injection stage and thus the mold stays firmly closed.

Injection

After the mold is clamped, the plastic material is heated and its melting point is reached, then it is then pressed at high pressure to the mold cavity. The material is filled into the mold through a gate-it is the opening in the mold through which the material enters.

Dwelling

After the plastic material is injected into the mold, it must be held under pressure for a while, known as the dwelling stage. This will ensure that the part is fully formed from the mold when the respective cooling down is completed.

Cooling

Once the dwelling stage is complete, the mold is cooled to solidify the plastic material. We have to very accurately control the cooling process in order that the product is cooled evenly and defects like warping don’t appear.

Mold Opening

Once the plastic material has undergone the cooling and solidification process, the mold is opened, and the part is released from the mold. The ejector pins that exert a sufficient amount of force to push the part and eject it from the mold are used in the process in which they transfer force on the part and remove it from the mold.

Ejection

The separated product is removed from the machine during the ejection stage and the excess material is trimmed.

Repeat

The injection molding cycle is then repeated to produce additional parts again.

If you are interested in injection molding cycles, please click on “injection molding cycles” for comprehensive information.

A common injection molding cycle
A common injection molding cycle

Applications of Injection Molding

The scope of application for injection molding processes may be clearer to you than to me. Yes, most of the commonly seen plastic products in life can be manufactured through the molding process. Despite this, let me briefly talk about the top 6 industrial applications:

For most industries, it only makes sense to find the most durable material at the lowest cost to produce the needed products. As a versatile manufacturing technology, injection molding plays a crucial role in developing and creating many modern products, from consumer toys to airplane parts.

Food and Beverage

The food and beverage industry heavily relies on plastic materials to manufacture product packaging and containers. Since this industry must comply with strict hygiene and safety regulations, injection molding is clearly suitable for meeting various specifications, including BPA-free, FDA certification, non-toxic, and GMA safety regulations.

From small components like bottle caps to trays used in TV dinners, injection molding provides a one-stop solution for all packaging and container needs of the food and beverage industry.

Automotive Parts

Many parts on modern vehicles require a variety of carefully designed functions to work properly. For this reason, many leaders in the automotive industry have turned to plastic injection molding to develop, plan, and manufacture the parts they need. Typical injection-molded components include bumpers, dashboards, and smaller parts such as cup holders and rearview mirror housings.

Medical and Pharmaceutical

Since many medical products need to be shatterproof, pore-free, and perfectly shaped, this process is vital for medical and pharmaceutical production. As mass producers, the medical industry can benefit from the shortened production times and affordable production materials of injection molding, while still obtaining high-quality medical-grade products. The range of medical and pharmaceutical parts manufactured extends from medicine bottles to X-ray components.

Household Products

Simply by visiting your kitchen, you’re likely to find injection-molded products or parts. From tupperware to building materials used in construction, it’s undeniable that this industry wouldn’t have reached its current level without injection molding. Like other industries, by investing in mass production and shipping to global retail outlets, home products can be made more affordable.

Agriculture

Historically, it was typical for agriculture to invest in metal parts, as they provided a durable solution. Now, due to new plastic materials with characteristics such as UV resistance, impact resistance, and moisture resistance, enhanced plastic options are favored.

Being able to create durable agricultural products that withstand farm elements makes plastic injection molding evidently suitable for the agricultural industry, from feed troughs to specialized harvesting components.

Elektronik

Although many people consider electronic components to be primarily metal mechanical parts that operate mainly on electricity, using corrosion-resistant plastic casings to extend the life of systems can enhance overall performance. As you might have guessed, manufacturing casings through the plastic injection molding process is preferred. The computer mouse you are currently using, as well as the television in your living room, likely have some components made using plastic injection molding.

Die Produkte von Firstmold im Bereich der Automobil- und Luftfahrtindustrie
Firstmold’s products in the field of automotive and aviation

Injection Molding Advantages

Compared to other plastic manufacturing processes, injection molding offers significant advantages. Of course, different plastic manufacturing processes serve their purposes well in specific scenarios, like blow molding being the most suitable for making bottles. Let’s summarize the advantages of injection molding:

Cost Advantage:

In injection molding, the only requirement is for the machine’s frame to have enough strength to support the material, mold, and frame’s weight to prevent material leakage with sufficient clamping force. Additionally, the material is almost not affected by external forces throughout the molding process, except for natural gravity. This results in the convenience of machining and manufacturing, short cycles, and low cost.

Quality Advantage:

Products made through injection molding have more stable quality and structure throughout the production process, as they do not generate internal stress.

Flexibility and Versatility Advantage:

The convenience of machine and mold manufacturing makes it especially suitable for the production of multiple varieties and small batches in new product development.

Customization and Design Advantage:

Injection molding allows for easy color changes in products and can achieve hollow designs. Surface treatments can include patterns, wood, stone, and metal effects, meeting the modern consumer’s demand for personalized products.

Materials for Injection Molding

There’s a vast array of materials available for molding, all engineered for specific purposes. This includes standard materials like PC-ABS and special materials like injection moldable PEEK. I strongly recommend clicking on “Spritzgießmaterialien” to understand how different materials perform in injection molding.

Next, we’ll offer product designers some advice on selecting materials for their designs.

For every part you design, your choice of material should be deliberate. In this context, the part’s utility, efficiency, and cost should be carefully considered. Your material choice will always directly relate to the part’s application.

Thinking backwards can help find the right material for your part.

Here are some useful questions to reverse-engineer your material selection:

  • What will the part be used for?
  • What kind of stress will it endure?
  • Is its cost exceeding the budget?
  • Where will it be placed?

Consider the following criteria to understand the priority factors for your selected material:

01. Location

You must consider where your part will be placed, whether it’s outside, inside, under the hood, in a dark, damp environment, or somewhere else.

02. Temperature

Temperature is crucial when choosing materials. Will the product end up in a refrigerator, or in a very warm or hot place?

03. Lifecycle

How long do you expect the part to last? 5 years, 25 years, or longer?

04. Warranty

Consider the warranty. Especially for the automotive industry, you must think about the cost of a warranty if parts fail years later.

05. Cost Constraints

There are two different types of materials. You can get commodity plastics (like High-Density Polyethylene or Polypropylene) that are usually high-density, low-heat, easily obtainable, and relatively cheap.

The second category is engineering plastics, including materials like PEEK and PEI. They are much more expensive and harder to find, but they withstand high temperatures and are tough.

06. Aesthetic Requirements

Does the part need to be fully transparent, or in a specific color? If your part needs to match other parts in an assembly, color matching might be necessary.

Once you’ve answered these initial questions, you can still consider some different material options. Consider a series of questions to help further narrow down the range of materials:

07. Design Functionality

Consider the mechanical engineering aspects of the part. Does it need to be flexible, compressible, bondable, etc.? Does it require tensile strength (meaning it can’t be pulled apart)?

08. Compliance

Adding certain compliances can quickly increase the cost of a part, which is why it’s important to evaluate what’s necessary and what might be redundant.

Does your part need to be food-safe, and comply with FDA requirements? Or does it need to be medical-grade, ISO, electrical compliance, etc.?

A few representative plastic materials
A few representative plastic materials

Coatings and Finishes

Surface treatment of injection-molded parts, essentially the surface treatment of plastics, is a crucial step. It involves physical or chemical methods to form a layer with one or more special properties on the material’s surface, enhancing the product’s appearance, texture, and functionality.

Spraying

Spraying involves using spray guns to atomize the paint and apply it to the workpiece. The process is: Molded Parts → Primer → Drying → Top Coat → Drying.

  • Pros: Rich colors; can treat complex structures; scalable for mass production; high transparency and gloss.
  • Cons: High cost, not suitable for low-cost products; complex process, lower yield.

NCVM

NCVM (Non-Conductive Vacuum Metallization) involves depositing a film of metal and insulating compounds to achieve a metallic appearance without affecting wireless communication.

  • Pros: Suitable for various plastics; eco-friendly; alternative to chrome plating; ideal for 3C products with signal transmission.
  • Cons: Specific to non-conductive products.

Galvanik

Electroplating gives plastic a metallic surface at a high yield rate and low cost. Similar to PVD but chemical in nature, it includes vacuum plating and water plating.

  • Pros: Lightweight; cost-effective; fewer processing steps; simulates metal parts.
  • Cons: Metal inserts cannot change during molding; more challenging than die casting for large parts; fire risk for some household applications.

Printing

Printing involves pad printing, screen printing, and transfer printing to apply patterns to the plastic surface.

  • Pros: Versatile methods for various effects; detailed and customizable.
  • Cons: Durability and wear resistance vary by technique.

Laser-Gravur

Laser Engraving uses optical principles for surface treatment, allowing for text or patterns.

  • Pros: Wide application, reliable; precise and fast; cost-effective, eco-friendly.

Etching

Etching uses chemicals like concentrated sulfuric acid to corrode mold interiors, creating textures like snakeskin or plowed fields.

  • Pros: Enhances visual and tactile appeal; anti-slip; increases surface area for better heat dissipation; facilitates demolding.

Injection Molding Advanced

The quality of injection-molded products often hinges on the initial mold design. Like product designers, mold designers must grasp numerous concepts. Here, we’ve listed key knowledge points mold designers need to understand during the injection molding process:

Plastic Shrinkage

Shrinkage in injection-molded plastics refers to the reduction in size due to physical, chemical, and structural changes after molding, typically expressed as a percentage. Shrinkage significantly impacts the dimensional accuracy of products.

Factors Influencing Plastic Shrinkage:

  1. Plastic Composition: Different types of plastics have varying shrinkage rates. For example, PP, ABS, PC, PA, and POM each have their distinct rates.
  2. Product Size: Larger injection-molded products tend to have higher shrinkage rates.
  3. Einspritzdruck: The pressure during the injection molding process also affects the shrinkage rate.
  4. Temperatur der Form: Mold temperature greatly influences product shrinkage. Both excessively high and low temperatures can increase shrinkage rates.
  5. Dwell Time in Cooling Tank: Longer dwell times in the cooling tank result in higher shrinkage rates for the product.

How to Reduce Injection Molded Plastic Shrinkage:

  1. Choose Suitable Plastic Material: Selecting the appropriate plastic material can reduce product shrinkage.
  2. Optimize Mold Design: A well-thought-out mold design can decrease shrinkage.
  3. Adjust Injection Molding Process Parameters: Modifying injection pressure, temperature, and cooling time during the molding process can influence shrinkage.

Plastic Flowability

The ability of plastic melt to fill mold cavities under certain temperatures and pressures is known as plastic flowability.

During molding, plastic flowability significantly influences the molding process parameters like molding temperature, pressure, cycle, and the dimensions and other structural parameters of the mold’s gating system. When determining the size and wall thickness of plastic parts, one must also consider flowability’s impact.

Flowability relates to the molecular structure of the plastic. Resins with linear molecules and few or no cross-links have high flowability. Adding fillers reduces resin flowability, while plasticizers or lubricants can enhance it. Thoughtful structural design can also improve flowability, such as using rounded corners at the junctions of runners and parts to ease melt flow.

Plastic flowability greatly affects part quality, mold design, and the molding process. Plastics with poor flowability may not fully fill cavities, leading to defects like short shots oder weld lines, requiring higher molding pressures. Conversely, plastics with good flowability can fill cavities at lower pressures but may cause excessive flash.

Therefore, when molding parts, select plastic materials with appropriate flowability based on the part’s structure, size, and molding method to achieve satisfactory results. Additionally, mold design should consider plastic flowability when planning parting lines, gating systems, and feed directions; choosing molding temperatures should also take flowability into account.

Plastic Crystallization

Thermoplastics can be divided into two major categories based on their behavior upon cooling: crystalline plastics and amorphous (non-crystalline) plastics.

Crystallization refers to the phenomenon where, as plastics cool from a molten state, their molecules shift from moving independently in a disordered state to ceasing free movement. They assume slightly fixed positions with a tendency to align into a regular pattern.

An observable criterion for distinguishing these two types of plastics is the transparency of thick-walled plastic parts. Generally, crystalline materials are opaque or translucent (like POM), while amorphous materials are transparent (like PMMA).

However, there are exceptions. For instance, poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) is a crystalline plastic that is highly transparent, and ABS is an amorphous material that is not transparent.

Common Injection Molding Defects

For product developers, various challenges arise during the development process, and resolving issues during the late stages of mold trials is particularly crucial. Injection molding defects can be a significant headache, appearing despite best efforts to avoid them. Different injection molding companies have their unique approaches to handling these defects, largely depending on the supplier’s experience.

Common injection molding defects include:

  • Flash/Burrs
  • Black spots, streaks
  • Cold slugs
  • Short shots/Incomplete filling
  • Delamination/Layer separation, wrinkles, orange peel
  • Warping/deformation
  • Weld lines/Water lines
  • Burn marks/Air traps
  • Sink marks/Bubbles/Vacuum voids
  • Shrinkage/Dents
  • Splay marks/Silver streaks/Scars/Air marks
  • Color mismatch
  • Excessive sprue/runners
  • Dimensional instability
  • Ungünstige Lage des Tores
  • Uneven gate size

Injection molding defects represent a complex topic worthy of in-depth study, which won’t be detailed here. Addressing these issues often requires a combination of adjusting the injection molding process, redesigning the mold, or selecting more suitable materials to mitigate the impact on the final product quality.

Quality Control For Injection Molded Parts

In injection molding production, a full inspection is crucial for ensuring and improving product quality. Here’s what it encompasses for large injection-molded parts:

  1. Inspektion des Aussehens: Die grundlegendste Prüfung besteht in der visuellen Kontrolle des Aussehens, der Abmessungen, der Oberflächenqualität und des Gewindes des Produkts.
  2. Prüfung der Abmessungen: Misst den Außendurchmesser, die Höhe, Tiefe, Breite usw. des Produkts, um sicherzustellen, dass es den Spezifikationen entspricht.
  3. Materialprüfung: Überprüft, ob für das Produkt die richtigen und angegebenen Materialien verwendet werden.
  4. Inspektion von Oberflächenfehlern: Sucht nach Oberflächenproblemen wie Kratzern, Rissen und Porosität.
  5. Gewinde Inspektion: Prüft die Gewindesteigung und das Profil auf Genauigkeit und Stabilität.
  6. Schweißnaht-Inspektion: Überprüft die Schweißstellen, um die Qualität der Schweißung sicherzustellen.
  7. Inspektion der Härte: Bewertet die Härte des Produkts, um sicherzustellen, dass es die geforderten Normen erfüllt.

Darüber hinaus umfasst eine vollständige Inspektion auch Folgendes:

  • Strukturelle Inspektion: Überprüft die Struktur des Produkts auf Korrektheit und Stabilität.
  • Inspektion der Passform: Es wird geprüft, wie das Produkt mit anderen Komponenten zusammenpasst, um die Präzision zu gewährleisten.
  • Überprüfung der Funktionsfähigkeit: Er stellt sicher, dass die Funktionen des Produkts den vorgesehenen Anforderungen entsprechen.
  • Inspektion der Umwelteignung: Bewertet die Anpassungsfähigkeit des Produkts an seine vorgesehene Einsatzumgebung.
Qualitätsprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle sind unerlässlich
Qualitätsprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle sind unerlässlich

Automatisierung des Spritzgießens

Roboterarme sind automatisierte Geräte, die in der Lage sind, die grundlegenden Bewegungen menschlicher Hände und Arme nachzuahmen, und die so programmiert sind, dass sie innerhalb einer festgelegten Routine greifen, Gegenstände bewegen oder Werkzeuge bedienen.

Roboterarme für das Spritzgießen wurden speziell zur Unterstützung von Spritzgießmaschinen entwickelt, um einen integrierten Ansatz für Gieß- und Greifaufgaben zu ermöglichen. Diese Roboterarme spielen eine entscheidende Rolle in der letzten Phase des Spritzgießzyklus, in der sie die geformten Teile nach dem Entformen aus dem Formkern entfernen. Dieser Prozess umfasst Konzepte der automatischen und manuellen Entformung, die in einem eigenen Artikel näher erläutert werden könnten.

Mit der Verschärfung des Wettbewerbs beim Spritzgießen werden die Qualität und die Effizienz des Spritzgießens für das Überleben des Unternehmens entscheidend. Die Qualität des Spritzgießens hängt von der Leistung der Spritzgießmaschine selbst, der Werkzeugtechnologie und der Umgebung ab, während die Effizienz mit der Präzision des Werkzeugs, den Gießtechniken und dem Produktionsvolumen zusammenhängt. Angesichts der zunehmenden Knappheit an Bedienern und der steigenden Arbeitskosten wird der Einsatz von Roboterarmen für die Teileentnahme immer häufiger.

Roboterarme Zwecke

Der Einsatz von Automatisierung in der Kunststoffverarbeitung ist weit verbreitet, wobei Roboterarme vor allem für folgende Zwecke eingesetzt werden:

  1. Automatisches Entfernen von Teilen: Roboterarme entnehmen die Produkte aus der Form und verlagern die Produktion von halbautomatischen auf vollautomatische Prozesse.
  2. Externe Formenbauarbeiten: Roboter handhaben Produkte außerhalb der Form, einschließlich des Einlegens von Gegenständen in die Form (z. B. Etiketten, Metallteile für das Spritzgießen oder das Sekundärgießen).
  3. Automatisierte Verpackung und Lagerung: Nach der Entnahme können Roboterarme die Verpackung und Lagerung der Produkte automatisieren.
  4. Automatische Materialzuführungssysteme und Abfallrecycling: Diese Systeme automatisieren die Zufuhr von Rohstoffen für die Formgebung und das Recycling von Abfallstoffen.
  5. Produktionskontrollsysteme für die gesamte Anlage: Roboterarme lassen sich in umfassendere Produktionskontrollsysteme integrieren, um die Effizienz zu steigern und den Überblick zu behalten.
Automatisierung nach der Entformung
Automatisierung nach der Entformung

Schlussfolgerung

Obwohl ich einen Artikel mit mehr als 4500 Wörtern geschrieben habe, um in das Thema "Was ist Spritzgießen" einzuführen, kratzt er nur an der Oberfläche des Wissens im Bereich des Spritzgießens. Um Produktdesignern zu helfen, Kunststoffe und Spritzgussverfahren besser zu verstehen, plane ich, eine Reihe kurzer, leicht verständlicher Artikel zu verwandten Themen als Referenz und zur Diskussion zu veröffentlichen.

Ich bin Ray Liu. Ich bin jetzt seit über einem Jahrzehnt in der Spritzgießbranche tätig und muss sagen, dass dies ein ziemlich faszinierendes Gebiet ist. Wenn Ihnen dieser Artikel gefällt, sollten Sie ihn mit Ihren Freunden teilen. Und wenn Sie immer noch nicht weiter wissen, keine Sorge - melden Sie sich einfach bei mir, und ich erkläre Ihnen alles. Alle Fragen zum Spritzgießverfahren sind willkommen!

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